the effects of early on pregnancies

 the effects of early pregnancies Dissertation

TYPES AND PREVALENCE OF BIRTH DEFECTS AMONG BABIES BORN TO MOTHERS ON EJENDOM DRUGS AND THEIR COUNTER-PARTS IN MBARARA, UGANDA.

BY

DOCTOR NTUUYO FRED

MBChB, MSc. Anat (MUST)

SUPERVISOR

--------------------------------------------

A research pitch written being a requirement for PhD research in human anatomy

Drive 2010

DESK OF CONTENTS

TITLE …………………………………………………………………….... 1 DESK OF ITEMS …………………………………………………. 2 ACRONYMS USED ………. ………………………………………………. 4 SUBJECTIVE ………………………………………………………………. your five CHAPTER one particular: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………….... 6 1 ) 1: History …………………………………………………. ….. 6

1 ) 1 . you: Genetic factors ………………………………………... six

1 . 1 . 2: Twinning ………………………………. ……………... 8

1 . 1 . a few: Environmental factors ………………. ……………….... 8 1 ) 2: Types of D?DSBO drugs.................................................................. 10

1 . installment payments on your 1: NRTIs ……………………………………………… 14

1 . 2 . 2: NNRTIs ……………………………………………. doze

1 . installment payments on your 3: Protease Inhibitors………………………………. ….. 12

1 . 2 . some: Entry/Fusion Inhibitors…………………………. ….... 12

1 . installment payments on your 5: Integrase Inhibitors ……………………………. …….. 13 1 . a few: History of HAART and PMTCT…………………. ……………13 1 ) 4: Assertion of the trouble ………………………. ……………. 15 1 ) 5: Research Significance……………………………. ……. ……... 12-15 1 . six: General Objective…………………………………………….. 16 1 ) 7: Particular Objectives …………………………………………… 16 1 . 8: Hypothesis ………………………………………………….. … 16 1 . 9. Conceptual Framework ………………………………… …… 18 CHAPTER two: LITERATURE ASSESSMENT ………………………………… 18 CHAPTER three or more: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………. 23 three or more. 1: Analyze Subjects/Area of study ……………….. ………………. twenty-three 3. 2: Research Design/Data collection……. ……............................... 24 a few. 3: Data analysis and Presentation................................................... twenty six REFERENCES …………………………………………. ……………….... twenty-seven Appendix i actually: RESEARCH CUSTOMER SURVEY ……………………………32 Appendix ii: ANALYSIS BUDGET ………………………. ……………. forty five Appendix 3: RESEARCH TIME FRAME ……………………………… 46 ACRONYMS UTILIZED

HAART – Highly Lively Anti-Retroviral Therapy

HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus

SKILL – Anti Retroviral Remedy

ARV – Anti-Retroviral

NRTIs – Nucleotide/Nucleoside Invert Transcriptase Inhibitors. DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid

NNRTIs – No Nucleoside Change Transcriptase Inhibitors

PI – Protease Inhibitor(s)

PMTCT -- Prevention of Mother To Child Tranny (of HIV) AZT - 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine or perhaps Zidovudine

d4T - 2', 3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine or perhaps Stavudine 3TC - 2'-deoxy-3'thiacytidine or Lamivudine

gp41 -- Glycoprotein forty one

CCR5 - Chemokine Receptor 5

CD4 – Cluster of Difference 4

WHO ALSO - World Health Enterprise

et approach. - and others

MRRH -- Mbarara Local Referral Clinic

ISS -- Immune Suppression Syndrome

MJAP - Mulago Mbarara Joint AIDS Program

TASO -- The ASSISTS Support Enterprise

i. e. - frankly

e. g. - one example is

CDC -- Centers for Disease Control and reduction

ABSTRACT

Birth defects are the strength, behavioral, functional and metabolic disorders that the baby may well have at birth. Several birth abnormalities are reported nowadays by the media, reasons behind which are imprecise. In materials, 40-60% situations of birth defects occur as a result of completely unidentified causes. Environmental factors, innate disorders and twinning would be the known reasons behind birth defects. Prescription drugs such as Thalidomide were confirmed in the early on 1940s to be among the environmental teratogens. Today, use of Antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy since HAART or as dual therapy for PMTCT continue to poses controversy on the protection of the EJENDOM drugs to the embryo/foetus. Inside the developed community, safety single profiles of D?DSBO drugs for the embryo/foetus have already been studied and reported. In addition , birth defects departments for the general population have been established. It has not been done in Uganda. This research will endeavor to bridge these types of gaps to get our populace. A review...

References: Abdi-Rad Isa, Khoshkalam, Hamid-Reza and Farrokh-Islamlou (2008). The prevalence at birth of overt congenital anomalies in Urmia, Northwestern Iran. Posture. Iranian Med. 11(2): 148-151.

Anonymous (2006). Birth defects. Seen on Feb . 14th 2008 from http://www.marchofdimes.com/pnhec/4439 1206. or net

Chen C

Finkel Richard, Luigi X., Cubeddu and Clark Michelle A. (2009). Lippincot's Illustrated Opinions: Pharmacology. next Ed. Lippincot Williams and Wilkins.

Furtado M. L., Callaway Deb. S. and Phair M. P. (1999). Persistence of HIV-1 transcription in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells in patients obtaining potent antiretroviral therapy. And. Engl. L. Med. 340: 1614-1622.

Lenz W. (1988). A short history of thalidomide embryology. Teratology 38: 203 in Moore Keith L. & Persaud T. V. In. (1998). The Developing Human: Clinically oriented Embryology. sixth edition; T. B. Saunders; Philadelphia, Pennyslvania.

McBride W

Moore Keith L. & Persaud T. Versus. N. (1998). The Developing Human: Clinically oriented Embryology. 6th copy; W. W. Saunders; Phila., Pennyslvania.

Rang H

Sadler T. W. (2004). Langman's Medical Embryology. ninth edition; Lipincott Williams and Wilkins; Baltimore, U. H. A.

Sadler T. W. (2005). Langman's Essential Medical Embryology. Lipincott Williams and Wilkins; Baltimore, U. H. A.

Saitoh A., Outer skin A. Deb., Franklin P. and Spector S. A. (2005). Myelomeningocele in an newborn with intrauterine exposure to Efavirenz. J. Perinatol. 25(8): 555-6.

Thorne C. and Newell M. M. (2003). Antenatal and neonatal antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected ladies and their newborns: a review of safety issues. Med Wieku Rozwoj 7(4Pt 1): 425-36.

Thorne C. and Newell M. T. (2005). The protection of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy. Professional Opin. Medication Saf. 4(2): 323-35.

Master Roger and Clive Edwards (2003). Scientific Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 3rd Ed. Churchill Livingstone.

Wongvipat Nancy (2001). HAART works! Retrieved upon 19th Feb 2010 from http://www.thebody.com/content/treat/art4826.html

Appendix i: RESEARCH QUESTIONAIRRE

Share:

Related

 Stress Article 08.08.2019

Stress Article

795 08.08.2019

Stress

People utilize the word tension when they feel overwhelmed or things turn into too much to deal with on their own. We become beyond capacity and wonder whether we really…...

Read →
 Topography and Height Dissertation 08.08.2019

Topography and Height Dissertation

90 08.08.2019

Topography and Level

IMPORTANT EXPLANATIONS DEFINITIONS VIA TOPO ROADMAPS REPRESENTATIVE SMALL FRACTION (RF): Is it doesn't ratio involving the distances for the map to its matching distance in actual…...

Read →
 1 What Did Arthur Andersen Help the Enron Catastrophe? Essay 08.08.2019

1 What Did Arthur Andersen Help the Enron Catastrophe? Essay

1) What did Arthur Andersen contribute to the Enron disaster? Arthur Andersen (AA) contributed to the Enron devastation when it has failed to the administration by faltering to have…...

Read →
 nothing Article 08.08.2019

nothing Article

954 08.08.2019

nothing

п»їChristmas is an annual commemoration of the birth of Jesus Christ and a widely discovered cultural vacation, celebrated generally on Dec 25 A feast central to the Christian liturgical…...

Read →
 The Computation Essay 08.08.2019

The Computation Essay

398 08.08.2019

The Analog computer

The Analog computer – Movie director Character Analysis Mr. Actually zero – The key character in the Adding Machine, Mr. Zero is usually an individual that…...

Read →